Today I’m in London for the Digital University Network Seminar at the Society for Research into Higher Education. Lesley Gourlay began proceedings by noting that openness is an area which needs to be looked at in the context of the ‘digital university’ series. Here are my notes on the presentations by the other two speakers.
Openness and praxis: Exploring the use of open educational practices for teaching in higher education
Catherine Cronin (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Catherine’s talk was focused on how actors in higher education make sense of OEP. She emphasized that “education is inherently an ethical and political act” (Michael Apple). As educators we face fundamental questions about the role of higher education in the future, and the kind of skills and literacies we are trying to develop. She believes we need more criticality, more theoretical work and more focus on privilege.
In her PhD work the focus is on the ethos of transparency and sharing. Some of the learning spaces in higher education are experiencing changing boundaries, becoming more networked and less bound by physical space. In ‘open’ spaces different voices and interactions are emphasized. Much has been published on openness. There are many different interpretations, but there are few empirical studies, or studies that adopt a critical approach. How do people make choices around the benefits and risks? It was noted that openness cannot it itself be considered an educational virtue.
OEP are perhaps even harder to define than OER. Some approaches include open pedagogy, critical (digital) pedagogy, digital scholarship and networked participatory scholarship. Further complexity is added by the different levels of application (from individual to institutional, for instance). Catherine’s research looks at shared values, the use of OEP in teaching and way that decision-making about OEP adoption takes place. A constructivist grounded theory approach is taken (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) with analysis that acknowledges the subjective and interpretivist understandings of individuals (Charmaz, 2014).
So far it has been found that it is hard to determine who qualifies as an “open practitioner” because there is a wide spectrum of practices and pedagogical choices. A minority of participants use OEP for teaching (e.g. social networking, open VLE, use & reuse of OER, . Most perceive potential risks with OEP. Findings include:
- 2 levels of OEP use identified:
- “Being open”
- “Teaching openly”
- 4 dimensions shared by educators
- Balancing privacy and openness
- Developing digital literacies
- Valuing social learning
- Challenging traditional teaching
Catherine suggests that these are intimately connected. For instance, it is impossible to effectively manage online privacy without developing digital literacies. Valuing social learning involves implicitly challenging traditional learning approaches.
Some educators talk about openness as a kind of ethos or way of being. Others see it as a distraction, or as a pragmatic approach. These differences can be observed as the nano, micro, meso and macro levels. Most guidance is offered at the macro level, but the day-to-day decisions are smaller and less well supported. Other issues that were highlighted were the anxiety and stress experiences by individuals who feel that by being open they are inviting observation and possibly controversy; and the sense that institutions are not providing adequate support.
Some general conclusions:
- OEP use is complex, personal, contextual and continuously negotiated
- More evidence is needed on the actual experiences and concerns of staff and students
- Open education strategies need to reflect the real benefits and risks
- HEIs should provide support for developing digital identities, navigating tensions between privacy and openness, and spaces to reflect on changing roles in a more participatory culture.
Exploring higher education professionals’ use of Twitter for learning: issues of participation
Muireann O’Keeffe (Dublin City University)
Muireann’s research focused on use of Twitter by 7 HE professionals. Martin Hawksey’s TAGS explorer was used to collect data. Semi-structured interviews followed – these underwent thematic analysis. Some important theoretical influences:
- Eraut (2004) identifies three factors for informal learning: feedback; challenge; confidence/commitment.
- White & Le Cornu (2010) on ‘spaces’ rather than communities of practice and the distinction between ‘visitors’ and ‘residents’ (http://firstmonday.org/article/view/3171/3049)
‘Visitors’ tended to be information gatherers, with little social presence. They tend not to ask questions of others.
- Barriers for this group include time, cautiousness, vulnerability, capacity to participate, confidence
- A tendency to lack confidence in their own knowledge
- Tendency to think of themselves as an observer rather than participant
- A belief that the platform was designed for someone else – not them
- Feel marginalized and excluded
‘Residents’ positively experience questioning, challenge, and other forms of academic debate on Twitter. They engage in non-educational commentary.
- Unlike the ‘visitors’, this group tended to speak in terms of enablers
- They are confident with Twitter etiquette: playfulness, tone, etc.
- They were more likely to have a professional confidence, and a capacity to participate