Catherine Cronin (National University of Ireland, Galway) – Navigating the Marvellous: Openness in Education
Catherine began with a quote that illustrates her view of eduction:
“Education is inherently an ethical and political act.” (Michael Apple)
Catherine spoke about growing up in New York and the political milieu in the 1960s (including the assassinations of Martin Luther King and John F. Kennedy that helped her to grow to political awareness and the role of education for supporting healthy political life. Different people have different parts to play in the political process. Education thus conceived necessitates criticism of what exists, pointing to what has been lost, and identifying possible futures.
Openness: Catherine identifies this with sharing resources and thoughts in a freely available way. Lots of resources that claim to be ‘open’ aren’t necessarily licensed in appropriate ways, and open practices should be understood as a more radical level built on top of this.
“Openness is an ethos, not just a license. It’s an approach to teaching and learning that builds a community of learners” (Jim Groom)
Catherine was keen to identify openness with a kind of humility rather than the hubris of seeking greater attention for one’s work:
“I don’t think education is about centralized instruction anymore; rather, it is the process [of] establishing oneself as a node in a broad network of distributed creativity.” (Joichi Ito)
As networked individuals, we need to overcome the distinction usually recognised between formal and informal learning. Students come with different expectations and experiences that they bring to the spaces within which they learn. Couros (2006) refers to the ‘networked’ teacher who makes use of a range of digital technologies.
Learning spaces can be physical or online, and tend to be bounded in different ways. Different spaces can facilitate community building to different degrees, but in any space there will be some voices that are privileged and some which are excluded. When online we experience fewer markers of identity, with differing ideas about the effects of presence and telepresence on pedagogy. Open online spaces tend to disregard institutional, national or physical barriers to entry and so facilitate greater sharing and connectivity.
The network is the organising principle of open online spaces – but how should this work in practice? Openness here refers not to licensing but to the practice of facilitating this connectivity.
When students enter institutions, we can ask them about the tools they use and their views on transparency, privacy, and experimental pedagogies. These discussions can be open, and help to form a shared understanding and expectation. Open discussions can take place on social media which draw on the idea of networked learning. Students should be encouraged to connect across cohorts and levels to build community and learning skills.
We can minimise the power differential between student and teacher through open approaches, though it should be noted that some students worry about being judged for thoughts and contributions shared in the open. Identity is key to understanding these concerns because identities are constructed through dialogue and sharing. Students should be supported in building and trying out different identities because so doing will help build digital skills and confidence. Online identity doesn’t so much transform one’s own sense of self but it can help us become more aware of the contingent and contextual nature of our identities, and help us to see possibilities for being otherwise.
We can see open learning spaces as ‘third spaces’ which are neither formal nor informal but draw on both the skills of formal learning and the informal identities that have a kind of authenticity. One risk with developing e-learning is in believing in a kind of subjectless learner who does not bring their own identity to their learning. We need to recognise difference: gender, race, religion, disability and other potential sources of ‘Otherness’. Open practices are a brilliant first step towards this.